Tuesday, 22 August 2017

   Hallucinogenics and the Norsemen

   Hallucinogenics and the Norsemen

   How likely is it that the pre-Christian Norsemen use hallucinogenic plants in their rituals, or the gonzo/ HBO version: Did “The Vikings” get high on magic mushrooms? Shamanism both modern and ancient is also a practice which has a great deal of interest among modern western populations. Spiritual traditions of pre-Christian European peoples are of real interest to modern Europeans and the diaspora with much ink shed on the subject.

I am aware that other writers on European traditions have tackled on this issue but I have chosen not to refer to their work in this field relying instead on the source material, archaeology and supporting work done in anthropology and works on shamanism in general.

 What is known about the Pre-Christian (henceforth Heathen) beliefs of Northern Europe? Well enough exists to make evidenced assertions and yet there is so little evidence that most assertions can be reasonably refuted. Both shield maidens and Berserks can be evidenced from sagas and histories yet both can be easily dismissed as embellishments and works of fantasy. Human belief, ritual and spiritual outlook is a slippery enough subject even in modern literate times, we are dealing with a culture which ended a thousand years and more before our time, whose stories were written down by people who did not share their beliefs and lived themselves hundreds of years after the last heathen societies converted.
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There was a pantheon of Aryan (we're taking that word back!) Gods worshipped across the Eurasian world. In the North they are known to us as Odin, Thor, Loki and a host of others. In the Germanic world these “Aesir” gods shared the Pantheon with the gods and goddesses of a fertility cult. How this came to be is beyond the scope of this article but it is sufficient that these beings are attested to in archaeology and poetic devices which attests to their being a real phenomenon in Northern Heathenry. These beings also seem to have been worshipped alongside an animist belief in land spirits, elves and localised spirits in the manner of the more or less common to rural peoples world-wide. Though unlikely to have been so formalised the result may have been something akin to the Shinto-Buddhist spirituality of Japan.
Fairy dance, note mushroom

 Religious practice certainly consisted of rituals marking the stations of the year similar to what we can see today in mainstream society but probably conducted with more sincerity, harvest festivals, the Easter fertility festival Yule and so on. This marks the community bonding aspect of ritual practised by all societies including, dear reader, our postmodern, secular society.

 Alongside this more mainstream religion was witchcraft and a practice called “seidr”. This word seidr was translated by the brothers Grimm to mean “seethe” in the sense of boil. Interestingly the etymology of the word shaman also means seethe or boil. Seidr and witchcraft were seen as being somewhat less official and indeed were subjected to both restriction and then finally violence by later Scandinavian kings. 
  How much interplay with mainstream heathenry and seidr there was is hard to tell at this remove. The Oseberg tapestry found in the famous Norwegian ship burial contains very strong shamanic elements and was almost certainly associated with an elite figure Viking war leaders are known to have held pacts with  “entities” and the myths and legends themselves are filled with strong shamanic themes of shape shifting and “travelling” . A witch or visionary was employed by the entire community in Greenland for her insight. It is also worth noting that both witchcraft and seidr were associated with women though in a later purge a great many “seidrmen” were killed. Seidr was considered unmanly indeed Loki excoriates Odin:

“but once you practised seid on Samsey

and beat the drums as witches do

in the likeness of a wizard you journeyed among mankind

and that I thought the hallmark of a pervert”

It is hard to say whether the Norse thought that this carried the modern sense of being a “pervert” or rather, in those more robust times, it just meant being a bit too clever, not direct and just downright sneaky.  Archaeology has uncovered many pieces of jewellery with shamanic themes, especially of waterfowl, in addition to rattles and other paraphernalia still used in modern shamanic cultures. Combined with the literary sources it is safe to say that some kind of shamanism was practised in Norse communities as it was in neighbouring Sami communities until recent times.
Norse rattles or wands

 Shamanism, as writers like David Lewis Williams and Graham Hancock have argued, is the oldest expression of spirituality known to humanity. Almost certainly the impulse that drove Ice age Europeans to create unspeakably mysterious and incredible works of art deep in the earth was what we might call “shamanic” in origin. Pretty much universal among “primitive” societies the cosmology and practices of shamanism are remarkably consistent. Of course, over great spans of space and time there is divergence but in general the broad outline is shared and indeed there are very specific ideas that are near universally expressed. The role of the shaman themself is regarded as an intermediary between humans and a spirit world, the shaman often functioning as a seer or healer. Often the shaman goes through dreadful ordeals both physically and in the spirit world and  it is certainly not a path for the weak minded or faint hearted. 

 Consistent to all shamanic cultures is a belief in a multiple world cosmos, the imagery of the double helix, entopic phenomena, spinning tunnels, hatchings and so on and at deeper levels meetings with therianthropes, that is half human half animal creatures, and conscious though ambivalent entities . Shamanism as practiced by indigenous peoples is most certainly not a postmodern neo-religion of kumbayah and platitudes. Indeed the meetings with “spirits” are often terrifying and exercise a great deal of mental, even physical torment on shamans.

 The experiences that a shamanic practitioner encounters can be induced by a number of means, drumming, fasting, painful ordeals isolation and through chemicals. Lewis Williams and other researchers have managed to induce the experiences in laboratories using a variety of methods. All methods are caused by stimulating the brain to produce its own endogenous hallucinogen DiMethylTryptamine.

 Paul Bahn centred his argument against Lewis Williams “shamanic hypothesis” for the origin of cave art on the purported absence of suitable psychedelics in Ice Age Europe. While Lewis Williams reacted to claims that he had not “experienced” a shamanic journey by claiming that he “didn't want to fry his brain”. It is interesting that both men overlook the wide range of methods employed to incite this phenomenon and perhaps speaks to our own culture's obsession with “the drug war” and the quick-fix nature of this pharmacological age. Despite what many proponents of hallucinogens say few indigenous groups do actually use plants to induce shamanic trances and instead use isolation, drumming and other techniques.

 We have stated the case that there was likely a shamanic aspect to the Heathen religion of the Norse cultures, an argument that is widely accepted and not too controversial.  Sadly we are lacking both the archaeological evidence of a bowl full of magic mushroom tea and the saga “Ragnar ate a mushroom and visited the clockwork elves”, so what is available?

In Njal's saga the decision about whether to adopt Christianity was taken by a man who went into isolation and wrapped himself in a blanket to achieve a kind of “isolation tank” effect. This was a technique also used later in Scotland and Ireland for inspiration. Devoid of outside stimulation the brain creates entopic phenomenon, shapes and lights before the eyes, these can morph into tunnel like effects and at deeper levels lead to powerful hallucinations.

There was an “animal” dance performed by Varangian guards in Byzantium which was thought to be linked to an animal-warrior cult, archaeological finds of burnt bear claws and other iconography also hint at animal-warrior cultic practices. Odin is attested to have suffered many agonising ordeals for wisdom, hanging himself for the runes (lit.mysteries) and drumming with the witches on Samsey. As stated, rattles and shamanic effects are also known in archaeology. So there is some evidence for the physical methods of shamanism, as for plants there is a dramatic image of a mushroom on the Oseberg tapestry among much shamanic imagery and I have read that the Icelandic word for the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria ) mushroom is “berserker”, though this has proven very hard to confirm.

Oseberg detail with mushroom

 It is widely believed that the Greek Elusinian mystery was based on an hallucinogenic drink, but hallucinogenic use in Europe is more implied and suspected until recent times. Certainly Siberians used agaric mushrooms though through most of Europe grow safer Psylocbin mushrooms. The first recorded “use” of psylocybin mushrooms in modern times was the accidental poisoning of a family in Green Park London in 1799. It is interesting that this use took place in a major city during the industrial revolution. It is unlikely that a rural family would have made such a mistake.

 In addition to the continued association with agarics with fairies throughout European art history, I have heard that agaric mushrooms can be quite potent and when used as a smoke or shamanic smudge their more noxious effects can be controlled. This put me in mind of the lines from Grimnir's sayings:

 May he have Ull's protection and that of all the Gods

whoever first quenches the flames

for the worlds lie open for the sons of Gods

when they lift the lid off the kettles.

There is certainly nothing as explicit as the Central American depiction of mushroom cults. A small scale private mystery cult is implied in the sources pertaining to Norse culture and in common with many such societies the mysteries would be jealously guarded. While a plant agent would not be required I suspect that mushrooms were used by at least some pre-Christian groups although the practice was probably not all that widespread and may indeed have been contained within a select religious group. Knowledge of and probably use of some kind of hallucinogen, likely mushrooms makes the most sense in the context of elements of the sagas and archaeology but as is so common with much of the past the mysteries that they knew they kept to the grave.

Friday, 26 August 2016

New site

All new content will be posted here:

Please join me.  Selected old content will be posted there over the next week or two and then this blog will be closed.

Thursday, 10 March 2016

Discussions with the bowyer Mike Roberts.

Here are some excerpts from a  series of emails I conducted over a few months with bowyer Mike Roberts. It concerns some of the paradoxes and questions raised by the sources concerning Gaelic archery. 

want a bowyer's opinion on some historical descriptions of Irish/Gaelic bows. 
we have three written descriptions one hostile, one friendly and one neutral they all describe a similar bow and we have pictorial evidence that agrees. In short it looks like we have to accept that the bows described are what people were using in period. I am unsure whether the wood would be able to take the strain of the design at high poundages.

 First question: What British reed would be usable as an arrow? 
Second: How would the described bows stand up to use, how hard would they be to make. It looks to me like the historical bows have a "D" section but this would seem to me to place a phenomenal strain on the wood and produce an appalling shooting bow. How high in poundage would it be possible to go?
Third: sinew string? In Western Europe, this sounds off to me. Have you an experience with waxed sinew strings in our climate. 
 So this looks like bows about 60-90 cm with a sinew(?) string shooting 55cm long reed arrows about 240 odd meters.


Also and unrelated I remember reading that the bow from Stellmoor was made of pine, any ideas. I would have thought a wider bow made from the heartwood would possibly make a bow capable of killing reindeer. 

Hi Neal,
umm reeds....I suspect it would have to be reed mace if native. Maybe somebody traded for some psuedosasa japonica at some point! Other than that I'm really don't know.
As you say if you try to make a wooden bow to those dimensions something has to give and if dimensions are set that short then draw weight would be the obvious answer. However the American Indians made plenty of very short but serviceable bows once the horse arrived in America but they were limited to short draws,wide limbs and maximum draw weight of around 60#. However they had started development of hornbows because that is really the only way to make short bows with a decent draw weight. Remember that cattle back then had much bigger horns, I've seen various hornbows made with cow horn and if you can get a piece to stay together (eg. not delaminate between layers) it is every bit as good as water buffalo. I would probably be tempted to hypothesize that a hornbow is the most likely way they built these short bows if their effectiveness isn't being exaggerated. After all Robin Hood had a Turkish bow  from the Crusades...didn't he!? Most people would say 'they can't be used in the rain/humidity of our climate' but I have been shooting one I made repeatedly for about two years with no loss of performance and it is finished with shellac varnish. Also people may say that they are too complicated to make and yes whilst you have to get every step perfect they can be made with very simple tools.
Finally sinew strings....well I've made a few and whilst not a master at making them and there being plenty of room for improvement they are still very effective.....when it's dry.....rain and sinew strings do not mix but that's not to say that they couldn't be water proofed. However back then nettle, hemp or flax would have been my bet as they all make excellent strings, grow very well here and would have been durable in the rain.
So there are my thoughts, I hope you can get something from them but if you have anymore questions feel free to fire away. 
I could make a simple hornbow that would meet the criteria and I think I know where there is a patch of reedmace...there is nothing like a working example :)

 Thanks Mike, I think that if they had used horn it would have been remarked on. Well it would be interesting to shoot some reed arrows, dangerous I would have thought. So what do you think laminated bows or that the descriptions are wrong? I wonder if the bows weren't built as described but shot at about 60#.
 There are laminated bows known from Scotland and Scandinavia, Horn bows are mentioned in Kings Mirror (from Norway) and Beowulf. Definitely  a possibility. Would it be a layer of horn on a yew bow or made from different materials?

Hi Neal, 
our best wood for hornbow cores would be yew or hornbeam. They simply have to be backed with sinew. A laminated wood bow doesn't really have any significant advantage over a selfbow, maybe 10 fps maximum if made to very exacting standards. If a reed can be found that is stiff enough there would be no problem in shooting it.

Hi Mike, so what do you think is the maximum draw weight we could expect for a self bow made to the dimensions given #60? I don't think laminated horn bows could have been at all common in Ireland or Scotland, it would be just too hard to keep them dry. The examples I know were used in forts so are possibly not representative and could have received lots of attention and care. We've only really got the reports of non military, non archers to go on and then it's only anecdotal. Despite hating the Gaels, Spencer's account seems plausible to me, he lived in Ireland and was intimately involved with the English administration. 

 "Shot forth weakly" compared to a warbow #60 or thereabouts would seem weak. Personally I don;t really see why warbows were so powerful experiment and historical accounts attest that armoured men were unharmed (but perhaps not unaffected) by arrows while #60 will wound an unarmoured man at 100 meters. I have recently seen estimates of English warbows as high as #200 draw weight, this seems excessive to me, sadly the discussion is so heated and emotional its quite hard to get a decent dialogue going. 

When we talk about what draw weights were used 'back in the day'  what we have to realize is that most people nowadays are a really poor example of what a human being is like....over weight, weak, not in the least fit etc etc As an example I can do at least 10 straight arm pull ups with two fingers purely because i go climbing lots. I don't even train specifically other than going climbing. Your average joe nowadays can barely do a full pull up with all their fingers it doesn't take much to transpose that example back a few hundred years and swop climbing for archery. IF you train specifically for something that is really important to you the sky is the limit. I can quite easily draw 100# with zero specific training for heavy bows I know that if I trained properly and it really meant a lot to me to keep it up I could draw a heavier weight still. When I was learning how to make hornbows i got Adam Karpowzi's book on Ottoman Turkish bows, in it he lists the dimensions of many hornbows that are in the Topaki Palace museum, i'm not 100% on the actual number without checking in the text but the avberage draw weight is around 140# (the weights can be worked out accurately by examining the draw weights of similar modern bows and comparing the dimensions of bending sections etc). Some of these bows are pushing 200#, there is also a monster 'double' bow that is estimated to be around 300# draw weight and there are records of it being drawn. also the distances that the Turks shot in flight are disputed but again Adam shows that it certainly is possible to get those sort of distances but you would need about 180# draw weight. When it comes to the English bows of yesteryear we have all the Mary Rose bows....IF you've actually made enough elb's to get real world experience of them then you quickly realize that with the unchanged dimensions of these bows you are talking about heavy weights, that is a fact. Those bows in my estimation would range from around 100# to around 200#. Like I say though the real problem when we talk about draw weights is a) most people nowadays are weak b)most people haven't made lots of bows for that real world experience c) most people have never trained specifically and for a long time for anything...and therefore have no real comprehension of what they are capable of!
Anyway enough rambling from me! If you have anymore questions I'll reply a bit quicker this time!
All the best

Lovely stuff, here are the dimensions : not past three quarters of a Yard long, with a String of wreathed Hemp slackly bent, and whose Arrows are not much above half an Ell long, tipped with steel Heads

so half an ell is 57cm (22") from a bow  68cm (27") long, we'll be generous and say this is strung. If the bow was a self re-curve in good quality yew what would be a reasonable upper limited on draw weight? 

Right I have had to do 10 straight arm pull ups off my stairs....phew I am still a man! I had to use all my fingers but then I'm not a rock climber. But I agree modern post industrial humans don't stand well next to our ancestors. You may have seen the post I did about runners in Scotland, it is shocking what people would do just as a normal part of their activities. I think Hardy puts the decline of the warbow down to (in part) the shift from heavy agriculture to more livestock pasturing producing people who found it hard to pull bows to the required standard. I'm not sure but it is interesting, I also think the environmental collapse in temperatures and concomitant reduction in physical build could also have had a part. Though in truth I think that the manifest superiority of firearms against heavily armoured troops was the deciding factor. 
 I agree that the sky is the limit in terms of the physical ability of the archer and would have thought that the bow/bowyer would be the limting factor. I have read that beyond a certain draw weight there is a marked trade off between accuracy and continued increased in power. The result being that beyond 170#(?) there is little benefit in increasing the draw weight. Modern archers shooting in the mid 150s seem to shoot as far as historical archers so I would guess most bows would be around that draw weight.  That said how the English warbow was actually effective is a bit of a disputed point. Armies were clearly not expecting arrows to kill with every shot or even that often so there was another factor of the weapon being exploited, probably the distruptive power of the volleys. A long winded way of saying a really high draw weight may have been required but without actually staging real medieval battles we can't actually know. 
 Did you manage to find a stave suitable for a warbow type bow?

honestly with those dimensions you couldn't make much more than a kids bow....The normal rule of thumb is that your bow should be double the drawlength you require from it and that's a bow that bends in the handle area (doesn't narrow here). If it has a rigid handle then you would double your drawlength and add the length of the handle/fades.
Even hornbows lengths are held to drawlength x 1.5. So a 22 inch draw would require a wooden bow of 44 inches (bendy handle), 44 + 8 = 52 inches (stiff handle), a hornbow with a stiff handle could be made to about 33 inches. Making a hornbow without a stiff handle would be possible and that bow might get you close to 27 inches.
You see I know that a wooden bow can't be made to those dimensions for that drawlength and not either break or take so much set that you wouldn't have to bend it to put the string on! However, just cruising my memory banks here, the Kalahari Bushmen use mega short bows with super light arrows and short draws, i'm not certain of what wood they use but I do know that it's super dense.....dunno maybe it's worth you googling them to see the gear they use if you don't already have an idea. The yuse poisoned arrows and don't really need any penetration, a super light and ease to carry archery set is their main priority. They use their superb tracking/trailing skills to get close enough.
What's know as Ultra' running is becoming more and more popular as people rediscover the capabilities of the human body. Every one of us who is born with all the bits we need working can run close to 200 miles a day. There are many examples of great distances being run in history but people tend to just dismiss them as fanciful! The thing that stops us doing it now are - modern shoes and laziness! I've been trying my hand at persistence hunting and have definitely got the deer tried but the ones i've got near to tiring out have given 'last gasp efforts' as if they knew the game was almost over and managed to lose me. Honestly i'm sure they know what i'm trying to do. Anyway that's another discussion. 
Yes there is a whole load of nonsense talked about draw weights.....I think testing armor of the period against arrows is more or less a waste of time as we weren't necessarily trying to put down armored men what we were trying to do is stop the other army advancing close enough to us to have to engage in hand to hand fighting - we were trying to take the horses out of the equation. Most horses don't like being shot by arrows.....even the best, most solidly trained horse will start misbehaving, to put it mildly, if you stab it with an arrow.....once a heavily armoured knight is without his horse he is immediately next to useless. Look at the arrows we were using big and heavy with a point designed for pure penetration - these arrows were designed to give a bloody good wallop to whatever they hit, they weren't designed to cause bleeding like a broadhead is. A broadhead will kill in minutes if it hits something vital but a bodkin won't necessarily do the same - we were trying to disrupt the 'common well known tactics' of the French. We knew how they would try to fight a battle so we designed our weapons accordingly. So these big, heavy arrows need quite some horsepower behind they to make them go far enough to be effective. We design a bow style that is relatively easy to make, gives you good yield from the yew logs you can get, you make it long enough so that you can draw it a long way to increase efficiency and of course you make the draw weight close to the upper limit that your men can use. As with the running distances there are examples of heavy bows in use in history and people dismiss them as too powerful because they can only just shoot a 50# bow themselves.......not a great basis for any meaningful conclusion to be drawn! As I mentioned before probably the most solid proof of the draw weights used is Adam Karpowzi's book on Turkish Hornbows and the bows of the Topaki Palace museum, it cannot be disputed that these were actual bows in use and his equations for determining draw weight cannot be dismissed as fanciful. If you can't get hold of a copy I could send you mine for a loan.
Yes I do have a couple of suitable staves for a heavy bow.

 Hmm funnily enough that description fits nicely with some drawings, what do you think 30#? I found the Royal Armouries tests on armour penetration very rewarding. They are less involved (shall we say) than some on the subject. They found chain mail alone was enough to stop any attack from a medieval weapon. This accords with contemporary sources. They also stated that these tests are incredibly difficult to do as medieval armour was made to an incredibly high standard which is almost unrepeatable (an colossally expensive) today. So as you write the effect of the heavy arrows was highly effective against armies rather than individual soldiers. England's greatest warbow victories were against the lightly armoured Scots again contemporary chroniclers state explicitly that it was the poor armour of the Scots that made them vulnerable. I think it was this factor that lead to the English in Ireland employing archers on such a massive scale. Now that said it looks alot like "Viking" bows were also way up in the mid 100 pound draw weights despite the vast majority of combatants wearing little armour and all carrying effectively arrow proof shields. As you mention a broadheaded arrow will kill an armoured animal in short order so in terms of lethality the Scandinavian bows were over built.  So it would seem the sheer physical impact of thousands of heavy arrows crashing into an army may by itself have been the desired outcome with any casualties being a welcome bonus, a bit like artillery barrages, though modern analogies are not too useful.

I have a bushman bow, it's a hypodermic needle for injecting poison. I have done some bow hunting here in France I think hunting with a rifle spoiled me! It's also quite a bit more visceral yet seemingly painless. 

 For my research project this is interesting at it seems that Gaelic bows were smaller and weaker but also employed somewhat differently, with an emphasis on dropping individuals or killing members of a rival group. This is why I am trying to work out potential draw weight of depicted or described bows.
 As for running , DO YOU KNOW wIM hOF (effing caps lock) yes I absolutely agree that humans are capable of physical feats of truly stupendous achievement. I am not at all convinced of persistence hunting being an evolved niche for humanity. I personally think that for hunter gatherers it is a technique that comes more out of the right circumstances (suitable prey and high temperatures) and I also think it is worth noting that the hunting success rate for chimps is as high as for industrial humans and way higher than persistence hunting. 

More thoughts here:

Also and unrelated have you ever put up a climbing wall? I am thinking of putting in a bouldering/traversing  area on the barn.

Hi Neal, 
Yes 30# would be possible but the wood with anything over a 13 - 14 inch drawlength would be breaking down fast. Yes you can draw bows past this 'ideal' drawlength but the belly wood cells lose their elasticity and the bow as a whole will become a much less efficient spring. The problem with this is that if you look at virtually every cultures different bows from around the world every one of them is the best bow that could be made with the materials available to them and the conditions it had to be used in. We just don't go wasting our time making 'rubbish' bows....so unless we can look at the whole situation  the bows in question would have been used in , tools, wood, weather etc it's hard to draw any real conclusions? 
Have a good Christmas.

 Yes I absolutely agree, spencer's measurement's make no sense at all. That;s a great way to look at it too. I would have thought anything less than a high hunting weight would have no utility at all and a minimum of 60# would be required. dRAW LEGTHS WOULD PROBABLY BE LOWER  as heights in the medieval period were lower than at present, but this is sadly conjecture. 
 It was certainly possible for Gaelic people to make warbow type bows they encountered them regularly too. It does look that it was a bow type they did not use in favour of a recurved and smaller type bow. Probably reflecting the raiding type warfare that predominated.

 I was thinking of taking a similar look at scandinavian archery, ever made an ovoid section warbow?

Have you read this, it's a useful document as (I assume) Native Americans were using bows of a far lighter poundage than warbows. 


 The next post will be on some thoughts concerning the above article...I'm also ruminating over some points raised in a Thomas Sowell Essay on some of the Gaelic origins of Modern American "black" culture.

Wednesday, 16 December 2015

Planning a move

Hi, I have a few articles in the pipeline, one is nearly ready and others are chugging along the cogitation conveyor belt. However I am planning on moving the blog to a different platform. Blogger is not easy to use and is has become increasingly glitchy over the years. I am looking at options now and am planning on developing my youtube channel to reflect this subject matter. I will also take the chance to  increase the production values of the channel content.
 Thanks very much to you all for your patience.

Wednesday, 12 November 2014

Sword for sale

 For sale, A Scottish/Irish medieval sword. Based on the example listed in Wallace's Scottish Swords. Made by Armour Class and made to their usual good standard. I bought it for a photo shoot but am now selling as it is no longer required (though it looks good on my wall!). 
The blade is sharp and the sword has not been used to cut and has received very light handling. There is a small scratch on the hilt but it is hardly noticeable. 
I am afraid I will only be able to ship the sword within the UK due to problems I have had with overseas shipments in the past. 
I am looking for £150 plus shipping but am open to offers. 

Tuesday, 30 September 2014

Getting it to look right

The photo shoot I discussed in my last post was a somewhat rushed affair. I did not have time to get alot of the kit right, I also did not have time to truly apply myself to the physicality of the impression.
 I had been planning a shoot of some description for some time and had an idea of getting myself into the physical shape of a medieval Gael in addition to putting on the clothing. In fact this is one of those things that bugs me most about re-enactor impressions. Often we an see stunning attention to detail and no expense spared on kit, yet all hanging on a frame that would have been rare to non-existent in history.

Tough looking Irish tenants.
 The girl on the right looks just like my mum.
Most warriors until very recently were part timers who attended to other tasks on the off season, even full timers often came from a farming background. Only the very rich could have made it through to adulthood without building a frame capable of physical labour, the very rich would of course have had to have built a frame capable of fighting.  That said people would not have the bulk of modern populations, whether muscular or otherwise.
 Fortunately we can use photos from the 19th century of both Scotland and Ireland to get an impression of
Peat cutters
what people living and working in remote communities looked like. Of course the culture and conditions had changed enormously. New foods had been introduced and the communities of rural Scotland and Ireland were essentially colonies of the British state, the warrior tradition and its training had long gone as had many traditional aspects of society such as shielings and transhumance. We can surmise that the reliance on potatoes and more localised agriculture had effects on the populations as would have widespread emigration.
 Walter Raleigh,failed planter and the friend of Edmund Spencer (who hated the native Irish with genocidal passion) gifted the potato to Ireland saying it would solve the Irish problem. No one in the British state has ever really cared about gifting the native Irish with a nutritious food so we should assume the "solution" might well be more like a 20th century "solution:
by the sworde; for all those evilles must first be cutt awaye with a stronge hande, before any good cann bee planted; like as the corrupt branches and unwholsome lawes are first to bee pruned, and the fowle mosse clensed or scraped awaye, before the tree cann bringe forth any good fruicte. (Spencer)

Skye crofter.
 The Irish and Scots (on both sides of the highland line ate a far healthier native diet of oats/corn,  sheep and cattle with a great deal of fish and shellfish in coastal areas. You can read more here. Islanders eating a native diet were found by Weston Price to be in superb health (Chapter 4). I notice comparing photos that the Scottish islanders  eating a traditional diet look a bit "lighter" than the crofters of the 19th century.  Diet controls about 80% of body composition but we can't discount the slightly greater amount of muscle power used in the 19th century. 
Glib haircut
 Anyhow these sources give us a rough idea of the shape of medieval Gaels. For the impression I wanted a gaunt hungry look, a bit like I had been living of oats and blood up in the hills for a week. I had planned on going on quite a severe diet before the shoot but the scheduling rushed things along so that wasn't possible. I am in pretty good condition anyway but probably carry a bit more body fat than was the norm in history. 
 I had originally thought that I am too bulky for historical standards though going through the images of Irish crofters I'm not too sure this is the case. Breugels pictures of low country peasants also show similar "lusty" physiques.  Images of historical Gaels show pretty robust looking characters as well as the lithe,
dancer-like form of Deheere's redshank.  I had assumed that historical peoples would be rather more lean and smaller framed  than moderns. This is based on experiences with extant clothing post 18th century. Images, photos and archaeological reports don't confirm this assumption.  

Unlike the modern world of the puny and fat we would find historical communities full of strong, lean individuals. The incredible changes to body composition over the past thirty years are without parallel and completely extraordinary in the wider context of humanity.

 With a healthy dose of R1b and and I1 genetics I can assume that the general colouration and facial structure are about right though in honesty I don't think I look  terribly "Celtic/Gaelic" at all. It is however a look I can pull off more than say, a conquistador. The hair and beard are completely fine for Highland  Scots up to the 18th Century when beards became less fashionable. Even for the 17th century I would prefer to see a more manicured type of beard. The Irish famously wore a hair style called a glib which I have no intention of getting, though long hair is definitely portrayed too.  While many medieval impressions feature wild hair and beards, such a look was quite unusual in history, in fact much of the  medieval period was  clean shaven.
Medieval tough guys.
Even more so than today people cared about and fussed over their appearance. Fine mustaches, goatees and neat hair were all the rage at different periods. The modern wild barbarian look was very unusual in history, happily for me the Gaelic Scots also hated combs and scissors!

 Given another photo shoot I may well try to get the gaunt, hunted look and would do well to get much more dirt involved.......much more dirt!

Friday, 26 September 2014

Wearing the Rogart shirt.

I had an article on Gaelic archery accepted by a U.S. publisher. The publisher asked for some photos to illustrate the article. This led to me speeding up my impression somewhat, so the accompanying photos do not necessarily reflect historical accuracy but do give something of historical flavour without any overt or egregious errors.

 I borrowed some weapons and an ionar and leine from my friend and fencing instructor Lyell Drummond and found a nearby heath that looked suitably Scottish. I went for a general Gaelic 15th-16th century look. The only glaring inaccuracy was the dirk which is very much a 17th century design, however I tucked the handle away so it just looks like a generic big dagger. I would like to have a bit more in the way of scabbards and baldrics but am still working on getting something made. I would also have liked to have got the clothing to look a bit more lived in (dirty!). The photo shoot itself was rather rushed and full credit to my wife who managed to take great pictures while holding a baby in one hand and dealing with a pesky three year old too!

 Shoes:I opted for bare feet as I dislike the brogan I own, the evidence suggest that barefeet were extremely common in both Scotland and Ireland, and before modern manufacturing methods going barefoot was probably far more practical. Even Anglo Saxon art portrays men going barefoot and this may have been a widespread feature in history.  Wet turn shoes are very slippy while not offering much in the way of protection. How far up the social scale one had to move before shoes were encountered is something of a question. I suspect that the more senior figures and mercenary troops wore shoes of some description much of the time, certainly this is what period art portrays. With more time I would have tried to acquire or commission shoes in the manner of Deheeres redshank. I go barefoot a lot of the time and even though the heath we shot on looks like upland Britain it is actually quite dry, with a number of spiky plants not commonly seen in wetter environments. I was pulling gorse spines out of my feet for about a week afterwards though at the time had no problems running and leaping about. 
 Yes this is where I took quite a major liberty. There is an Angus McBride illustration of Flodden which portrays highlanders in sleeveless jacks. It is a look I quite like, I removed the sleeves of this jack for another project and didn't have time to repair and replace them. Needless to say arms are quite important and protecting them is a good idea. By itself the leine does not look quite right and the sleeveless jack filled the need for some kind of upper body garment. The Ballymote coat reproduction that David Swift uses would be far more appropriate. I doubt you would see a gaelic warrior of any century wearing an armoured garment that I am in these pictures.The Ionar I had  was too 16th century for the 15th century sword so I went for inaccuracy over anachronism.
 The ionar is a padded fencing jacket owned by Lyell Drummond, he is quite a lithe man so I was pleased (and surprised) to be able to do it up. While the form is as generally depicted I am not sure about the colour though it was  perfectly achievable in period. This is a tailor made garment so was actually quite uncomfortable for me to wear. I could see that made for me it would be a pretty practical proposition especially if made of wool.
 I opted to go with my Rogart shirt rather than with the 16th Century leine I had borrowed, this was more due to time constraints. Again with the undershirt I was suprised by just how warm this combination of clothing actually is. I suspect the original owner of the Rogart shirt was smaller than I am, I was quite frustrated that I couldn't roll up the sleeves. I should disclose that I am one of those freaks who is too hot in January it would be interesting to try the shirt out in the highlands. The shirt lends itself to dynamism with great freedom of movement. Despite its apparent flimsiness it does see quite a practical option for Scottish weather, especially if made from wool as was the original. Midges however would be another thing, though in fairness I doubt they were quite the problem they are now.
 I opted for a non-clan tartan plaid, though this is a full size plaid it looks a wee bit small compared to contemporary images. The plaid was a huge pain and would clearly have been discarded before any kind of action though with a high value they would probably only be dropped if there would be a good chance of getting it back. The plaid kept unravelling and trailing and basically being a huge nuisance though it was well behaved in general movement. I think like a lot of people who have worn them I appreciate the practicality and comfort of cloaks/plaids and sort f regret that they aren't still worn, they look dashing too but aren't much good when activity goes beyond walking or general milling about. Wrapping the plaid around the arm was quite a nice may of dealing with the garment and would be quite protective as is attested to a number of times in history. Lyell Drummond hypothesises that the voluminous leine would provide at least some protection from cutting attacks which would be a nice thing to test out.

 In conclusion I think we achieved a good impression that while it is in no way wholly accurate is accurate in spirit. Not bad for a rushed job. The clothing was practical and while quite outlandish to modern eyes manages to effect practicality with showiness within the fairly limited means of people in the Gaelic areas.

Leather work: http://www.foxblade.co.uk/
Swords: http://www.armourclass.co.uk/
Please contact me for further information about the bow.